Valdyas is a fictional country in a fictional world. Ilaini is an invented language. I invented it for my own enjoyment and that of anybody else who enjoys it. It has no scholarly pretensions. Please don't make a fool of yourself by using my language pages for your linguistics case-work.
  First person Second person
informal honorific
subject in, ine tin, tine tuye, tuyen
object i ti tuy
subject inin, inine, inini itin, itine ituye, ituyen
object ini, inini iti ituy
subject anin, anine atin, atine atuye, atuyen
object ani ati atuy

These forms are used for all genders. The number prefixes a- and i- are unstressed.

It is not known whether the first person singular has underlying *ni, or the -n- in the dual and the plural has been inserted to avoid hiatus. Dual forms of other words starting with a vowel have -y-: orla "eagle", iyorla "double eagle" (gold coin).


In sentences with a finite verb the subject pronouns are only used for emphasis. Usually this is the long form. If the sentence has no finite verb, either the long or (more often) the short subject form is used

The object forms are used for any non-subject purpose: as direct or indirect object and with prepositions. In informal spoken language the object form is often used for all purposes: so ti cul dilay? "and you, how are you?" instead of so tine cul dilay?

Inclusive "we"

The only explicitly inclusive pronoun is inini, "you and I" or "you and me". It has the same form for subject and object. In spoken language it is often shortened to ini or jini, stressed on the first syllable.

All other second person dual and plural pronouns are used inclusively as well as exclusively.

Honorific forms

Originally the second person honorific was expressed by ti duyne, literally "noble you", and used only as a vocative. This wore down to tuyne, later tuye, and acquired a long form tuyen and an object form tuy conforming to the pattern of the other pronouns when it was no longer recognized as a compound. Tuyne still exists, but is considered over-formal.

Pronouns and postpositions

Postpositions are often fused with the pronoun: liz "without", tiliz "without you". The postposition, not the pronoun, is stressed. The preposition az "with" has a suffix form -ez for use with pronouns: aniez "with us" (the obsolete az ani also occurs).

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