Valdyas is a fictional country in a fictional world. Ilaini is an invented language. I invented it for my own enjoyment and that of anybody else who enjoys it. It has no scholarly pretensions. Please don't make a fool of yourself by using my language pages for your linguistics case-work.

Ilaini doesn't distinguish between nouns and adjectives. Most nouns are capable of modifying other nouns:

razie        lyase
young.person woman

"a female journeyman"

lyase razie
woman young.person

"a young woman"

Some suffixes, however, explicitly form nouns (such as -sen) or adjectives (such as -ys).

Gender and animacy

Nouns have no grammatical gender; biological gender can be expressed by gendered pronouns or by modifying the noun with ense "man" or lyase "woman". This is usually only done when strictly necessary to avoid confusion.

Animates use the epicene (common) gender when their exact gender is not known or not important. Apart from people, animates include the gods, all animals and personified forces of nature. All inanimates are indicated by the neuter gender.



The dual is formed by prefixing the singular with i-. It is used for intrinsic pairs, not for just "two of something": ibarsen "(pair of) shoes" but chonis ili "two shirts".

Dual nouns take a plural verb:

ivalan Turenye     neasayt
d-king Turenay-ill travel-PRS-3p

"The royal couple travels to Turenay"

inin brudea   sumayn
1d-S beer-acc drink-PRS-1p

"The two of us drink beer"

The plural of a dual noun means "pairs of...": ibarsin ili "two pairs of shoes".

There are also some "unequal duals": nane "mother", inane "parents" (nane so tate); valan "king, queen", ivalan "royal couple" (valan so vallone).

Many duals have lost their dual meaning: list "clean", ilist "change of clothes". Some have even acquired a plural of their own: dayen "the element water", idain "water in nature", idaini "sea".

When two similar things are compared with a- "equally" the modifier is technically in the dual, but the prefix a- takes precedence over i-:

inute       icunie
d-child-nom d-pretty-nom

"The twins are both pretty"

inute       acunie
d-child-nom eq-pretty-nom

"The twins are equally pretty"

Collective plural

Collective plurals refer to a collection of things or a group of people that belong together. The noun is in the plural, but takes a singular verb and singular modifiers:

rhin       rhinat
ship-nom-s sail-PRS-3s

"The ship sails"

rhini         rhinayt
ship-nom-(c)p sail-PRS-3p

"The ships sail", "The fleets sail"

rhini       rhinat
ship-nom-cp sail-PRS-3s

"The fleet sails"

rhini         moyi
ship-nom-(c)p large-nom-p

"Large ships", "Large fleets"

rhini       moy
ship-nom-cp large-nom-s

"A large fleet"

Obviously, there is no way to distinguish (except for context) between "fleet" and "fleets" when it is unmodified because the noun is plural already. Also, there is no way to distinguish between "ships" and "fleets" in the nominative. In the oblique cases the collective plural has -i- where the plain plural has -e-: gylsenin "of the letters", gylsinin "of the books".

Nominal affixes


na- negation productive
a- all, every; plural for pronouns no longer productive
i- dual no longer productive
a- comparative productive
do- augmentative productive
ta- diminutive productive


All suffixes are productive.

  Noun class  
-an II actor
-sen II thing, object; in the collective plural often abstract
-yas II region, country
-la I bird (shortening of rachla "bird", reanalysed as "wind-bird")
-yn II sudden or short event; unit of something uncountable
-ys II adjective-forming, often abstract
-as II noun-forming (obsolete participial ending)
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