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Grandpa and the Dragon (English)
Father, what are those lights? (English)
Beginnen kan ick (Dutch)
Hangkerim proverbs (Hangkerim)
A short story by Julio Cortazar (Spanish)
Iddreftel Pálmadhel i themar (Draseleq)
Wappatisaggá tiKastaná (Watyáisa)
Verimak (Teonaht)
A lament under the rain (Draseleq)

Translation exercises I prepared:

Xipu! Manxuri Penerar (Den'naha)
Lamay'neranmamen (Denden)


1       first person
2	second person
3       third person
AFF     affective mood
AUG     augmentative
COP	copula
CRT	certainty aspectivizer
DEL     delimitative
DIM     diminutive
DSP     despising attitudinal suffix
DST	distal deictic
DUP     reduplication
DUR	durative aspect
EXCL    exclamation
EXP     experiential aspect
FLT     fattering mood
FUT1    first future
GEN	genitive
HAB     habitative aspect
HGH     high grade honorific
HON     honorific attitudinal suffix
IMP     imperative
LGH     low grade honorific
LOC	locative particle
MGH     middle grade honorific
NEG	negativizer
NOM     nominalisation
PERF	perfective
PRS     present tense
PRT1	first preterite
PT3     third preterite
REL	object relative pronoun
RFL     reflexive
TOP     topicalisation
URGE    urgative particle
URGE    urgative particle
VHGH	very high grade honorific
f       female
p       plural number
poss    possessive
s    singular number



  • 12-13-1999 - Creation

© 1999 Boudewijn Rempt That includes my drawings.

Translations for the Conlang list

On the conlang mailing list there regularly are translation exercises for the reader. Great fun and you get some interesting results. Here are both the exercises I've done and the exercises I've posted.

Grandpa and the dragon

This the first paragraph of a story from Mailei Hallei rainei lhayi gylsin, the Book of Mallei Halla's Left Hand. It has been translated into Denden.

e.do        keda     ga  adim etand.alei mo   seras andal can    hahan.alei.
poss-1sMGH  ancestor NOM boy  be.PT3     then 3sHGH world though tramp.PT3
When my ancestor was a boy he travelled through the world.

Seras iber  tan nevus hahan.alei. Tan nevas ga  ke   nadul.
3sHGH first GEN west  tramp.PT3.  GEN west  NOM only sand.
He travelled first in the west, The west only had sand.

E    seras tan naha  hahan.alei. Tan naha  ga  ke   perlas.
then 3sHGH GEN north tramp.PT3.  GEN north NOM only snow
Then he travelled in the north. The north only had sand.

E    seras tan mudra hahan.alei. 
then 3sHGH GEN east  tramp.PT3
Then he travelled in the east,

Mudra tan barus    ga  se.se    tan keda     tau.tau.gahir.aju.alei.
east  GEN mountain NOM high.DUP GEN ancestor not.DUP.climb.CRT.PT3
The mountains of the east were very high, my ancestor certainly could not climb.

Sera  mo   kisuru.alei tan nyra  hahan.alei.nai nan.ini  qunaman.ini
3sHGH then decide.PT3  GEN south tramp.PT3.PERF walk.HAB ride.HAB 
Then he decided to go to south, walking, riding, 

hanun.ini weshir.ini
fly.HAB   sail.HAB
flying, sailing.

nyra  ar  tan andal zi.zi     oi.zi    ga  qirez.alei.za.
south LOC GEN world great.DUP city.AUG NOM see.PT2.EXP
In the south he saw the world's greatest city.

Father, what are those lights?

The following text was presented by Fabian and translated into Denden.

Father, what are those lights?

That is the city of the Goyanim. They are a strange people. They light their cities at night, as if the stars weren't sufficient for their needs. They fight and kill each other, not realising the greater danger beyond their small world. And they do not hunt each other with bows and arrows. No, they have strange devices that kill from far away without arrows. And take care near their strange iron horses they use to travel. They travel faster than any natural beast ought to, and ignore the strength of the bow and arrow. Best if you avoid their cities, my son.

Father, what's a city?

Arda,  hen  pahe wenyi.yi?
father what DST  light.DUP?
Father, what are those lights?

Oi   tan Goyanim ga.  Poim'tau.yidan ga.     
city GEN Goyanum NOM. people.NEG.normal NOM.
It is the city of the Goyanim. [they] are a strange people.

Vayn.vayn  tau.penan   e.ras      yunsuru.dir[1]
star.redup NEG.content POSS.3pLGH need.p
the stars do not content their needs

ka  ras   e.ras      wenyi.nyi cenam  oi.oi     
TOP 3pLGH POSS.3pLGH light.HAB night  city.DUP  
they light their cities at night.

Gigar.zi   e.sar      nil     andal.yi  tau.jonir     ka 
danger.AUG POSS.3pLGH outside world.DIM NEG.knowledge TOP
The greater danger outside the world not being knowledge, 

ras   bachanza.nyi ras   dilogh, ras   nothaz.ini ras   dilogh.
3pLGH beat.HAB     3pLGH RFL     3pLGH kill.HAB   3pLGH RFL
they beat each other as a habit, they kill each other as a habit.

ras   tau.qenkaz ras   dilogh hye  berkernan hye  belay.
3pLGH NEG.hunt   3pLGH RFL    with bow [2]   with arrow [3]
The don't hunt each other with bow and with arrow

Tau.tau.etand, e.ras      dox'tau.yidan    ga  nothaz tan kal tu.belay.lay
NEG.dup.be     POSS.3pLGH thing.NEG.normal NOM kill   GEN far without.arrow.DUP
No, no, theirs is a strang thing that kills from far without arrows.

Qurkigar.hau tan e.ras      tan afran  ga  cadrav.dir'dukka
carefull.IMP GEN POSS.3pLGH GEN travel NOM dragon.p.iron
Be careful of their iron dragons that exist to travel.

Danran.ran  afran  tan danca.ca   wuxik.zi 
REL-obj.DUP travel GEN animal.dup fast.AUG
Those travel faster than animals[4].

E.ras      oi   tau.karinzu ray.zi.zi,   anu e.do.
POSS.3pLGH city NEG.go-in   good.AUG.AUG son POSS.1sMGH
Not going into their city is best, my son

Arda,  hen  ga  oi?  
father what NOM city?
Father, what's a city?


[1] yunsuru < getyun 'take' + suru 'want'

[3] bent twig.

[4] Actually, simply a twig. While not exactly un-warlike, the profession of soldier or hunter is sufficiently depreciated not to let the words of the tools of the trade enter polite conversation.

[5] There exist no animals that are not natural - even ghosts are considered natural.

Beginnen kan ick

Irina Rempt posted the Dutch saying Beginnen can ick, volherden wil ick, volbringhen sal ick, in English I can begin, I want to persevere, I will succeed.

do    fainor yindad.ini,    do    ilor     suru.ni, do    quelday.ju.ni
1sMGH begin  be-able-to.HAB 1sMGH continue want.HAB  1sMGH succeed.CRT.HAB

There's not much formal difference between verbs and nouns: both can be pluralized, modified (and there's no formal difference between adverbs and adjectives in Denden) and both can denote quality or state.

It would be entirely correct to give fainor and ilor the habitual aspect <-ini> HAB too. The last phrase uses the certainty aspectivizer, to indicate that success is, well, an undoubted certainty:

do    fainor.ini yindad.ini,    do    ilor.ini     suru.ni, do    quelday.ju.ni
1sMGH begin.HAB  be-able-to.HAB 1sMGH continue.HAB want.HAB 1sMGH succeed.CRT.HAB

A more idiomatic way of saying this would be:

fainor ilor       quelday ga  do    etand.ju.ini
begin  continuity success NOM 1sMGH be.CRT.HAB
Definitely there will always be to me beginning, perseverance and success.

Where the translation of etand with to be is not entirely accurate: etand is not much more than a peg to fit modality, tense and aspect on, and does not have much meaning of itself.

More rethorically put, and more in the direction of the classical language, den'wenray:

fainor ilor       quelday ga  do    yindad suru etand.ju.ni
begin  continuity success NOM 1sMGH able   want be.CRT.HAB
Beginning, persevering, succeeding I am able to, want to, will attain, certainly.


fainor ilor       quelday ga  do    yindad.ju.ni suru.ju.ni etand.ju.ini
begin  continuity success NOM 1sMGH able         want       be.CRT.HAB

In these two examples etand is needed merely to provide a perfect parellellism between the first clause and the second clause: it would not be good style to have three elements in the first and only two in the second clause.

Hangkerim proverbs

Carlos Thompson presented two Hangkerim proverbs (translated into Denden):

  • Being a leader will make you and the people around you happy.
  • mur    ga  radan dilogh radan.dan radan.tos zimin yuhau
    leader NOM human REFL   human.DUP human.all happy necessity
    Being a leader, a person and all person will necessarily be happy
  • Commanding doesn't make you a leader.
  • mur    tau.mur.zi
    leader NEG.leader.AUG

    A short story by Julio Cortazar

    Pablo Flores suggested a short story by Julio Cortazar, which he presented in Spanish. Here's the translation into Denden

    Yomu tan pexen

    Tan Daine kę ternoberai adan, tan gerawan loroidoxaz adan. Pesne ar Daine ka shauldan zunganuno p zidaghanonuno. Feinta shauldan yetsamin'nanin'gasat qishen danran andvain'zimenir tan yal logh tan gerawan paisanar par penirir. Werubraibrai aday nahan lohe tan Daine. Daine chui jaharonai tan chakahinyi ga hon ka weru doxazdan nahan lohe tan Daine nah. Tan kairi denha tan gerawan kę ternoberai adan, tan Daine loroidoxaz adan. Feinta Daine yetsamin'nanin'gasat sü qishen. Nribraiapar adan nahan lohe tan Daine nah. Tetarin paisahonuno tan Daine zipaisan ga tayr beru gerawan semot. Cenam nahané tarna gerawan taunahanyara tan Daine nah. Pesne ar Daine zunganuno p zidaghanonuno. Gerawan geyun'yaryuan séor yidenha, tan Daine pesne lohe nayranju. Karinzu quré shauldan. Tan Daine zipaisan gedrafan. Vayn mayuan.

    Yomu    tan pexen
    subject GEN cloth

    I've translated tapestry as literally as possible. Tapestries are unknown in the Charyan culture, as are all possible connotations. For the rest, this was a remarkably context-free exercise.

    Tan Daine kę   terno.berai adan,
    GEN daine only eight.ten   man

    It is possible to pluralize counted nouns, but it is rather unusual, and in this case would imply that the general has eighty men and campfollowers, especially since campaigning soldiers in Charya are almost always followed by spouse and children and various tradesmen and tradeswomen bent on relieving the soldiers from their spoils. Most campaigns in Charya are of the tax-gathering kind, amongst the peasant population in the mountains. See for some background the story of Tiscim.

    tan gerawan loroi.doxaz adan.
    GEN enemy   5.1000      man
    Pesne ar  Daine ka  shauldan zunga.nuno p   zidaghan.onuno
    tent  LOC daine TOP 3sVHGH   curse.DUR  COP cry.DUR

    Pesne, tent, is loan from Matraian, pasan, 'tent'. General is translated by Daine, which is perhaps a bit too high in rank - especially for one with so few soldiers under his command. A high ranked official has a right to the very high grade honorific pronoun, shauldan, which is derived from the noun shauladan 'advisor'.

    Feinta shauldan yetsamin'nanin'gasat   qishen
    then   3sVHGH   proclamation.full.soul write

    A shauldan won't simply write a note, but is more refined than that: therefore, he writes a yetsamin, which is a word derived from the official literary language, Den'wenray, Classical Charyan. Good Denden is often a matter of mixing in enough Den'wenray.

    danran andvain'zimenir tan yal       logh 
    REL    dove            GEN messenger like

    andvain'zimenir: big-throat-bird.

    tan gerawan paisanar par  penir.ir.
    GEN enemy   camp     over let_drop.DEL

    gerawan < southern colloquial gelawan 'soldier'. Most people will view any soldier as an enemy. It's those tax-gathering campaigns, again.

    Weru.brai.brai aday   nahan lohe tan Daine.
    2.10.10        child  go    to   GEN daine

    Denden hasn't a word for 100: 100 is braibrai literally ten ten.

    Daine chui   jahar.onai   tan  chakahin.yi ga  hon   ka
    Daine easily succeed.PERF GEN battle.DIM   NOM after TOP
    weru doxazdan nahan lohe tan Daine nah.
    two  regiment go    to   GEN daine side
    Tan kairi denha tan gerawan kę   terno.berai adan, 
    GEN 3     day   GEN enemy   only 8.10        man
    tan Daine loroi.doxaz adan.
    GEN Daine 5.1000      man
    Feinta Daine yetsamin'nanin'gasat   sü    qishen.
    then   daine proclamation.full.soul again write
    Nri.brai.apar adan nahan lohe tan Daine nah.
    7.10.9        man  go    to   GEN daine side
    Tetarin paisah.onuno tan Daine zipaisan ga  tayr   beru gerawan'semot.
    silent  wait.DUR     GEN daine army     NOM around one  enemy-single
    Cenam nahan.é tarna gerawan tau.nahan tan Daine nah.
    night go.PRT1 but   enemy   NEG.go    GEN daine side
    Pesne ar  Daine zunga.nuno p   zidaghan.onuno.
    tent  LOC daine curse.DUR  COP cry.DUR
    Gerawan geyun'yaryuan séor  yidenha,
    enemy   take  slow    sword dawn

    The idiom for dawn is yidenha, literally 'little day'.

    tan Daine pesne lohe nayran.ju.
    GEN daine tent  to   go.CRT
    Karinzu quré shauldan.
    enter   see  3sVHGH

    A simple juxtaposition of two verbs is just as acceptable as using a copula: compare zunganuno p zidaghanonuno, 'curse and cry'. Tan Daine zipaisan gedrafan. Vayn mayuan. GEN daine army go sun appear

    Iddreftel Pálmadhel i themar

    A fragment from a play in Draseleq I translated into the Broyan stage language.

    Because of the structure of the Broian stage language, which is a real linguistic corset, I had to put a lot of explicit nuances into the text, that the original would have left to the audience. Of course, since nobody in a Charyan audience really understands Broian, these explicit pointers are necessary to get the story across. Some special effects of the language like the suffix that indicates whether the other actors on stage can hear the speaking actor I couldn't use at all!

    First I give the running text, followed by interlinear glosses and explanations.

    Pálmadhel kirasire fenqir t'aya!

    vokahrengangfenqir namu

    udan he yudir carjin

    udan 		udan tan Pálmadhel
    yudir 		Pálmadhel
    pal 		taupal
    foadur 		Fensil
    nudan 		taunudan
    charka 		taucharkar
    rachtan 	taurachtan
    judan 		taujudan
    pandan 		taupandan
    nirdir 		Hapseret
    p'up'u 		Unsuth
    fentandan: Pálmadhel kirasire fentan t'aya!
    fentandan nahan twa. Pálmadhel afran twa]
    Pálmadhel: udan caya t'awe! Ya yu yukirasirebu tiar.
               Tirmas yu c'uan.qu t'onahanlous lunda. 
    [tamrodu]  Yojal yu ya na timpogennarlous t'aya.
               Yu ya fohun tan foc'enudada an tupalodelus 
               gennarlous yu ya fohun y shogenang logh 
               nahanlousar ralaw.
               Ya tuyudiryerp ya yu pulandirqu miorafranliur 
               tulunda. Ya yudiryerp y yu pulandirqu afran 
               rayzi t'awe.
    [p'enairouvain gaho twa. Pálmadhel afran twa. Fo nahan twa.
     wenisis yaryuan p'aras twa. Fensil nahan twa.
    Fensil:    Tarmis agurwih tan fo yuafranlous duromis da 
               foyan pahgedrafan yujindrad sima.
               Ünsüth t'awe! Da udan he yudar tan andal 
               jutupamoiliar kunda! Da adan he yudir arat 
               niniyalaushliar kunda. Da arat t lengleng qufohun 
               yerdatliur sima.
               Ünsüth afranran t'awe! Da atu c'enudafohun pinipini 
               yarma-c'uxag-liar yaxa.
    [Ünsüth nahan twa]
    demdarudan: Ünsüth quFensil qunaman namu
                udanfiqar tan quÜnsüth qirtin nahantan namu
                atur udanfiqar perinper mursha turmadajun namu
                atur wayan voyuyan geyan namu
    [ wuxik'ik' p'enairouvain p'aras twa. Fensil Ünsüth tan baban twa.
     Fensil he  Ünsüth tamdoru afran twa. Hápseret nahan twa. ]
    Hápseret:- Udir hacakar afranlo tiar. Du foan mamaotand lunda!
               Agur kin karin yerir gesad hakar dilogh tupiro 
               zirhelaiob soimois gugu?
    [terhaush] Hacakar tajir qudentan yudunaten t'awe!
    Pálmadhel kira.sire fenqir t'aya
    Pálmadhel ill.wish  play   IMPRT
    The story of the ill wishing of Pálmadhel!
    vokah.rengang.fenqir namu
    old.style.drama      OJBC
    A play in the old style

    nama is the objective sentence-final particle. It indicates that the utterance is objectively true. udan he yudir carjin man and woman list Dramatis personae udan udan tan Pálmadhel (man: husband of Pálmadhel) yudir Pálmadhel (woman: Pálmadhel) pal taupal (emperor: no emperor) foadur Fensil (noble: Fensil) nudan taunudan (merchant: no merchant) charka taucharkar (soldier: no soldier) rachtan taurachtan (farmer: no farmer) judan taujudan (townsman: no townsman) pandan taupandan (civil servant: no civil servant) nirdir Hápseret (extra: Hapseret) p'up'u Unsuth (fool: Unsuth)

    Since the pronouns and some of the verbal forms used by the actors are determined by their emploi, it is extremely important to assign an emploi to every part. I didn't want to make everybody extra, since that would hide some of the nice features of the language.

    fentandan:	Pálmadhel kira.sire fentan t'aya!
    story-teller    Pálmadhel ill.wish  story  IMPRT
    Announcer: The story of the ill wishing of Pálmadhel!

    t'aya: sentence final particle indicating that what follows is important to listen to. Gloss: IMPRT

    [fentandan    nahan twa. Pálmadhel afran twa]
     story-teller go    NTR. Pálmadhel enter NTR
     Exit announcer. Pálmadhel enters. 

    For the nonce, I consider neither the announcer, nor Pálmadhel as specially important. Pálmadhel will have the emploi of woman.

    Pálmadhel: udan ca.ya   t'awe! Ya yu yu.kira.sire.bu  tiar.
               man  poss.1s EMOT   1s 3s CRT.ill.wish.POT LOVE
    Palmadhel: Oh, my man! I could curse him!

    Pálmadhel uses the pronouns that belong to the emploi of udan and yudir. The sentence final particle t'awe indicates strong emotion.

    The prefix <yu~> indicates certainty: The potential suffix <-bu> indicates that she desires the possibility. She certainly wishes that it would be possible that her husband met an ill fate. The sentence final particel _tiar_ LOVE indicates that she still loves her husband. Had I chosen _chochu_, the angry sentence final particle she would have been angry without love, now love lingers, and that makes the sentence more poignant. Though perhaps not what the author intended...

    Tirmas  yu c'uan.qu      t'o.nahan.lo.us lunda. 
    because 3s concubine.ALL SURP.go.PRT.PRF SAD
    Because he has turned out to have gone to his concubine!

    Second wife would not be that strange in the Charyan context, where the ideal marriage consists of three people. Therefore I have chosen the word c'uan, concubine, since there is a tradition of empresses having an issue with the emperor's concubine.

    I have used the suprised prefix <t'o-> to indicate that Pandamel did not expect her husband to leave her for another. The sentence final partice _lunda_ indicates her sadness about this.

    [tamrodu] Yojal       yu ya na     timpo.gennar.lo.us t'aya.
     noise    due_to_this 3s 1s thusly NARR.leave_alone.PRT.PRF IMPRT
    [diverse alarums] Due to this I have been left alone in this way.

    I have taken this to be an introduction to the rest of the story, that's why I have chosen for the narrative verbal prefix <timpo-> and the important utterance sentence final particle t'aya.

    Yu ya fohun tan fo.c'enuda an  tu.palodel.us   0.gennar.lo.us
    3s 1s night GEN moon.dark  LOC NEG.protect.PRF NTR.leave_alone.PRT.PRF
    yu ya fohun ralaw. Sho.genang logh 0.nahan.lo.usar ralaw.
    3s 1s night AFRAID hole.black LIKE NTR.go.PRT.ALWAYS AFRAID
    In a moonless night he didn't protect me and left me alone.
    Into a night like a black hole.

    This was a very difficult one! All this talk of dark and moonless nights is pretty frightening, so the entire sentence is finished with ralaw, which indicates fear. The aspect suffix <-usar> indicates that the action has begun in the past and continues into the present.

    Ya tu.yudir.yerp
    1s NEG.woman.remainder
    ya yu pulandir.qu    mior.afran.li.ur tu.lunda.
    1s 3s magistrate.ALL PSTV.go.FUT1.IMM NEG.SAD
    If I won't become a widow I won't mind sending him to the judge.

    A widow is a remainderd woman - actually, I didn't have a word for widow and I think it wouldn't be a common word. A woman whose partner(s) have died is not defined by that fact, and the concept is not terribly familiar.

    Since there is a direct object, afran 'to go' gains a causative meaning: 'to send'. The first future <-li&rt applies to actions that will happen within a short time. The suffix <-ur> adds the notion of immediacy. The positive prefix <mior-> PSTV implies she views sending him as a food action. The sentence final particle lunda indicates sadness, as we've seen before, but it is negated, so she's not sad.

    Ya tu.yudir.yerp,  ya yu pulandir.qu    afran ray.zi   t'awe.
    1s woman.remainder 1s 3s magistrate.ALL go    good.AUG EMOT
    If I won't become a widow I'll see that he goes to the magistrate.

    In den'broi, I have to state explicitly that is she who sends her husband to the magistrate. While the language has five degrees of distance in its spatial deictic system, it is not well endowed with relational pronouns. Of course, she's rather emotioned by this statement, therefore t'awe.

    [p'enairo.uvain gaho twa. Pálmadhel afran twa. Fo   nahan twa.
     flower.bird    rise NRT. Pálmadhel exit  NTR. Moon enter NTR.
     Butterflies fly up. Pálmadhel exit. The moon enters.
    wenisis yaryuan p'aras twa. Fensil nahan twa.]
    lamp    slowly  cover  NTR  Fensil enter NTR.
    The lamps are slowly covered. Fensil enters.

    Broian does not have the category of number. Fensil, by virtue of his divine status has the emploi of noble. The butterflies are man wearing large wing-like constructions who act as a curtain

    Fensil: Tarmis  agur.wih    tan fo   yu.afran.lo.us 
            because light.white GEN moon CRT.go.PRT.PRF
            duromis   da fo.yan    pah.gedrafan yu.jindrad sima.
            therefore 1s moon.from IMPR.leave   CRT.able_to GLAD
    Fensil: Now that the white light has departed from the moon I can
            escape from it.

    tarmis...duromis... because A therefore B. The prefixes <yu-> indicate certainty. Fensil is glad he can leave, therefore <sima>: this makes it an escape. He is a noble god, therefore imperious: <pah-> IMPR. He has the emploi of noble, and uses the appropriate pronoun da. (Actually, this is a mistranslation, the Draseleq original meant 'Now the white moonlight from which I escape has gone'.)

    Ünsüth t'awe! Da udan he  yudar tan andal ju.tupamoi.li.ar      kunda!
    Ünsüth EMOT!  1s man  and woman GEN world CRT.surpise.FUT1.INCPT DESP
    Ünsüth! I'll give those that inhabit the world a surpise.

    There is no third person plural as such, and since Fensil doesn't refer to acting parts of the play, he uses man and woman to indicate all people. He will certainly <ju-> surprise them. Since he is a high and mighty god, he despised those inhabiting the world: therefore the sentence final particle _kunda_ is used. The inceptive aspect marker <-ar> INCPT indicates that he will shortly (<-li> FUT1) start and continue into the future.

     Da adan he  yudir arat nini.yalaush.li.ar      kunda.
     1s man  and woman fear INSLT.engulf.FUT1.INCPT DESP
     I will engulf man and woman with fear.

    <nini-> is the insulting attitudinal prefix.

     Da arat t   leng.leng qufohun yerdat.li.ur  sima.
     1s fear too much.DUP  tonight give.FUT1.IMM GLAD
     I will immediately give abundant fear tonight.

    These sentences I have split in two. the immediate suffix <-ur> IMM indicates Fensil will start spreading fear now. He is glad to do so: therefore sima.

    Ünsüth afran.ran t'awe! Da atu c'enuda.fohun pini.pini 
    Ünsüth go.dup    EMOT   1s 2s  dark.night    mad.mad   
    yarma.c'uxag.li.ar       yaxa. 
    Go, Ünsüth, go! I will certainly madly tire you in the dark of the 

    A few cases of reduplication here. Fensil is certain of his intention, therefore uses the certainty sentence final particle yaxa. He is not ill disposed towards his steed, therefore uses the friendly prefix <yarma-> FRIENDLY.

    [demdarudan. Ünsüth nahan twa]
     singer      Ünsüth enter NTR
     Singers. Ünsüth enters.
            Ünsüth qu.Fensil  qunaman namu
            Ünsüth GEN.Fensil ride    PON
            Ünsüth is Fensil's mount.

    The ponent sentence final particle <-namu> indicates an objective truth. There is no difference between verb and noun, therefore qunaman 'to ride' can be used for 'mount', since it stands in a nominal relation to Fensil because of the genitive prefix <qu-> GEN.

            udan.fiqar  tan qu.Ünsüth  qirtin nahan.tan namu
            man.courage in  GEN.Ünsüth eye    go.under  PON
            Heroes get drowned in Ünsüth  eyes.
            atur perin.per mursha turma.dajun namu
            3s   fire.cold blood  HSTL.make   PON
            He turns into cold fire and blood.

    I've given Ünsüth the emploi of fool... He is the enemy of the heroes, therefore the hostile prefix <turma-&rt; HSTL.

            atur wayan voyu.yan    geyan  namu
            3s   star  heaven.FROM loosen PON
            He loosens the stars from heaven
    [wuxik'.ik' p'enairo.uvain p'aras twa. Fensil Ünsüth tan baban twa.]
     quick.DUP  flower.bird    cover  NTR. Fensil Ünsüth on  jump  NTR
     The butterflies are quickly covered. Fensil jumps on Ünsüth.
    [ Fensil he  Ünsüth tamdoru afran twa. Hápseret nahan twa. ]
      Fensil and Ünsüth noise   go    NTR  Hapseret enter NTR.
    Making a racket Fensil and Ünsüsth go. Hapseret enters.
    Hápseret:- Udir    ha.ca.kar  mama.afran.lo tiar. Du fo.an    mama.otand lunda!
               brother 1s.poss.1s RESP.go.PRT   LOVE. 3s moon.LOC RESP.stay  sad
    Hápseret:- My brother has gone. If he would only stay on the moon!

    Hapseret is pandan, extra. The possessive affix <-ca> is an infix when the pronoun is polysysllabic. She loves her brother, therefore tiar. (This ties in nicely with the Charyan twin gods, the Brother and Sister of the Kirimany, the divine lovers. She naturally respects her brother, therefore uses the respectful prefix <mama->. She's sad he's gone, therefore uses lunda.

    Actually, this is wrong: Pablo tells ratger a different story about the brother and sister, asserting that Hápseret is as powerful as her brother and the only one who can check him in his atrocities.

    Agur  kin  karin
    light back come
    yerir gesad hakar dilogh tu.piro    zir.helai.ob  soimois gugu?
    but   how   1s    REFL   NEG.flower place.gray.on amuse   RHET
    How can I amuse myself on this flowerless, gray surface until
    the light comes back?

    gugu is a sentence final question particle that implies a rhethorical question.

    [terhaush] Ha.ca.kar  tajir  qu.dentan yu.dunaten t'awe!
     sigh      1s.poss.1s nobody GEN.talk  CRT.hate   EMOT
     sighs. I do hate it when there's nobody to talk to!

    Wappatisaggá tiKastaná

    The first paragraphs of a short story by Nik Taylor, translated from Watyáisa. Since Nik hasn't yet corrected it, I'm not sure how well I've done in translating the extremely complicated Watyáisa.

    Fenfentir ga, kedandir nenoďcu wuzoleini. Nenoď ka kelao ga. Tan nenoď kedandir kelao ga. Tan nenoď kedan.dir tayavainyaralei.nuno burgatdir. Burgatdir yavain ga kedan.dir woniryaraleinai. Tarna ras Talapita burgat yavainjuleinuno. Sem bridam yadirze desh burgatdir purdirzoleini. T'udan seras pubirpubiryaraleni. Seras dos denhadir purdirzoleini tan dos burgatdir p seras tan eseras burgat tek jeratzoleini. Sem seras tan du denha mozhaz ondan mozhazini ondan p sem seras tan dot denha taelatet. Denha ta, seras teshitlo nannan, eseras tan gigar lo, tan teshitlo nan ga, teshitlor seras kelao.dir qazir tan Vlami belxa ga qirqir.

    Ras seras sem lahirir.

    "Aya! Vlami eserir burgat tauga. Vlami tan pubu burgat ga p serir Vlami taubarini. "

    Seras qilawaw.

    "Do serdir yavaini, tarna serdir sem do pubirini. "daha do yuan ga tauyuan, tan do taula ga, do tauwan ga."

    Seras geyun taukendir tarna tan gerdan semor p menarar rai. Tan belxa qazir yadirdir seras menarjuleinai Seras klintarju tan eras qilaw.

    Glossed text

    Fen.fentir ga,  kedan.dir  nenoď.cu    wu.zo.lei.ni.      
    past.DUP   NOM, ancestor.p village.LOC dwell.HON.PT3.HAB  
    Nenoď   ka  kelao  ga.  Tan nenoď   kedan.dir  kelao  ga.
    village TOP wicked NOM. GEN village ancestor.p wicked NOM
    Long ago the ancestors lived in a village. This village was 
    a wicked village. The ancestors of the village were wicked.

    The Classical word for 'past' is fen, the Denden word is fentir. In order to add a cultured touch to the narrative, the speaker uses the classical word, but the language is Denden, so the reduplication uses the Denden word. The repetition of kelao is typical for spoken narrative. Kedan is the Southern Colloquial form of Denden Keda, ancestor. There is no difference between female and male ancestors in any Charyan language. The important bloodlines depend on the clan people enter when marrying; whether that's the man's or woman's clan depends on much negotiation between the concerned clans.

    Tan nenoď   kedan.dir ta.yavain.yara.lei.nuno burgat.dir. 
    GEN village ancestor  NEG.love.DSP.PT3.DUR    god.p
    Burgat.dir yavain ga  kedan.dir  wonir.yara.lei.nai.
    god.p      love   NOM ancestor.p stop.DSP.PT3.PRF
    Tarna ras    Talapita burgat yavain.ju.lei.nuno.
    but   3fpLGH Tlapítá  god    love.CRT.PT3.DUR
    The ancestors of the village didn't love the gods.
    Loving the gods the ancestors had ceased. But they
    certainly loved the goddess Tlapítá.

    A bit difficult, this one. Of course, these are the village ancestors - and that means they deserve the high grade honorific pronouns at the very least. But they have deserted the gods, and that's so foolish, one can only apply the despising verbal attitudinal suffix to their actions.

    Sem  bridam yadir.ze  desh burgat.dir purdir.zo.lei.ni.
    Only one    woman.AUG all  god.p      pray.HON.PT3.HAB
    Only one venerable woman was still praying to all the gods.
    T'udan seras pubir.pubir.yara.lei.ni.
    other  3sHGH mock.mock.DSP.PT3.HAB
    The others were always mocking her.

    Denden doesn't have different words for laugh at and mock - pubir belongs to the same allofam as pubu 'fool' and pu 'coarse'. In this case reduplication of the verb does not indicate experiential aspect but rather a manifoldness of the verb, it is a kind of plural of the verb: more than one kind of mocking was going on.

    Seras dos denha.dir purdir.zo.lei.ni tan dos burgat.dir 
    3sHGH all day.p     pray.HON.PT3.HAB GEN all god.p
    p   seras tan e.seras    burgat tek jerat.zo.lei.ni.
    and 3sHGH GEN poss.3sHGH god    oil give.HON.PT3.HAB
    She prayed every day to all gods and offered her god
    Sem  seras tan du    denha mozhaz ondan  mozhaz.ini ondan 
    only 3sHGH GEN feast day   kill   animal kill.HAB   animal
    p   sem  seras tan dot    denha ta.elatet.
    and only 3sHGH GEN hunger day   NEG.eat
    Only she would kill a sacrificial animal on feast-days for
    killing animals and only she would not eat on hungry days.

    The construction tan du denha 'of the feast day' is quaint - it is far more standard to say denha tan du 'day of the feast', and this points to a very southern origin of the translator. Ondan is a classical word, with the general meaning of 'animal'. Within the context this can only mean 'sacrificial animal', since it is unlikely that the translator has much knowledge of the liturgical language, Archaic Charyan, and thus settled for the next best (read: ancient) thing.

    Denha ta,  seras teshitlo nan.nan, e.seras    tan gigar  lo,   
    day   this 3sHGH market   walk.EXP poss.1sHGH GEN danger place
    tan teshitlo nan  ga, teshitlo.r seras kelao.dir qazir tan Vlami 
    GEN market   walk NOM market.LOC 3sLGH wicked.p  break GEN Vlami 
    belxa ga  qir.qir.
    stone NOM see.EXP
    On this day she walked to the marketplace, a dangerous place for her,
    walking to the marketplace, on the marketplace she saw the wicked ones
    breaking the stone of Vlami.

    Belxa, 'stone' is altar. For the village-dwelling Charyans stones are especially holy. Stones are immensely useful; they give a place to make a small fire for cooking in, for instance.

    "Yadir.zi.dir!  Hen  ga? Serdir belxa qazir ga  wonir.hau.
     sister.AUG.p   what NOM 2pfHGH stone break NOM stop.IMP
    Vlami tan e.seras    belxa ga  ta.ta.gelaw ga!"
    Vlami GEN poss.1sHGH stone NOM NEG.NEG.angry NOM
    "Elder sisters! What is this? You must stop breaking the stone and
    Vlami, of whom it is his stone, will not be wrath."
    Ras   seras sem  lahir.ir.
    3pLGH 3sHGH only gay.EXP
    They only laughed at her.
    "Aya! Vlami e.serir    burgat tau.ga.
     EXCL Vlami poss.1pHGH god    NEG.NOM.
    "Ha! Vlami is not our god.
    Vlami tan pubu burgat ga  p   serir  Vlami taubar.ini. " 
    Vlami GEN fool god    NOM and 1pHGH Vlami hate.HAB
    Vlami is a fools' god, and we hate Vlami."
    Seras qilaw.aw.
    3sHGH angry.EXP.
    She became angry.

    Seras, in the high grade honorific form, is enough to identify our heroine: the other villagers are all fools and thus receive the low grade honorific pronouns.

    "Do    serdir yavai.ni, tarna serdir sem  do    pubir.ini.
     1sMGH 2pfHGH love.HAB  but   2pfHGH only 1sMGH mock.HAB
    "I have always loved you, but you would only mock me.

    Of course, our heroine speaks about herself in the middle grade honorific form: it's terribly bad manners to use the HGH or VHGH form for yourself unless you are very noble, rich or both.

    "daha do    yuan ga  tau.yuan, tan do    tau.la     ga,
     if   1sMGH do   NOM NEG.do    GEN 1sMGH NEG.honour NOM
     do    tau.wan       ga."
     1sMGH NEG.honorable NOM.
    If I don't do what I do, there wouldn't be honour
    to me, I wouldn't be respectable.

    The difference between la and wan is that la is the honour you have in an abstact sense, while wan is the honour the world accords you. Even if everybody thought you vile and worthless, you could have la a-plenty, but you wouldn't have wan. On the other hand, if you were respectable outward, but are used to pinch the kitten in the dark, you might have wan, but certainly no la.

    Seras geyun tau.kendir tarna tan gerdan semor p   menar.ar  rai.
    3sHGH take  NEG.use    but   GEN meat   knife and cut.DEL   3sLGH
    She took out a knife that hadn't be used for anything but
    meat and stabbed her.
    Tan belxa qazir yadir.dir seras menar.ju.lei.nai
    GEN stone break woman.p   3sHGH cut.CRT.PT3.PRF
    She stabbed the women who had broken the stone.
    Seras klintar.ju tan e.ras      qilaw.
    3sHGH fly.CRT    GEN poss.3pLGH anger
    She fled before their wrath.


    A translation of an English poem by Sally Caves into Teonaht.

    Not again

    I recognize that the _sü_, 'again', isn't an entirely adequate translation, but it'll have to do.


    Tan wiha ging tau.arat.hau sü
    GEN sun  heat NEG.fear.IMP again 
    Don't fear the sun again
    ma tan nahaun'per'qiraw qiraw
    or GEN winter     anger anger
    Or the anger of the angry winter
    di    e.di       qinadin quelday.ju  ga
    2sMGH poss.2sMGH office  success.CRT NOM
    The success you attain in your office

    Qinadan is especially a civil service job, in the Imperial government, the most sought after kind. This sentence is sure to grab the attention of every Charyan in the audience.

    tan kaulon nahan.ju.moi ga
    GEN house  go.CRT.FUT1
    The great house you will go to

    Kaulon implies a large house, with servants and more than one patio - the kind of place everyone wants. Most people in the city have to content themselves with one or two small rooms in an insula- like building.

    e.di       ram   di    ambar.ju.moi.nai
    poss.2sMGH money 1sMGH collect.CRT.FUT1.PRF
    The riches you will have collected.

    It's entirely good form to be nouveau riche in Charya, indeed, it is attainable for most people. It's easy to come by some money, and even easier to spend it, which is the right thing to do with it. So the sentiment expressed in this phrase readily touches the heart of every Charyan.

    adim.dir harul p   drai.dir,
    boy.p    gold  and girl.p 
    The golden boys and girls

    The Charyans are known als the Haruldandir, the Golden people, on account of their skin-colour, which is a nice golden-brown-red. This phrase can only mean 'Charyan children', and it seems to imply a lot of them, which, as the Charyans are not very fertile, but like children a lot, is a good thing.

    ir  ronyeran.dir tan  yzi'tohas.dir getyun ga
    as  cleaner.p    GEN  chimney.p     take   NOM
    yechan dayun.ju   logh
    dust   become.CRT like
    will become like the dust chimney-sweeps take

    So we needn't fear sun nor winter, but our riches, our high office and our children will become like the dust chimney-sweeps gather? But the office you hold you can bequeth to your children, who can use it as a stepping stone to attain even higher office, the money, when wisely invested, will aid the clan in gaining prestige and security for its members, and children are the joy of your old age. And if you lose everything, you just start again, is what a Charyan would say.


    tan koruchan.dir mazir tau.arat.hau sü
    GEN lord.p       frown NEG.fear.IMP again
    Don't fear the frown of the lords again
    di    nele    tan nilro'kiraw ghazaw  ga
    2sMGH beyond  GEN king'bad    cruelty NOM
    You're beyond the cruelty of bad kings;
    dheret p   mai     tau.luanotan.hau
    meal   and clothes NEG.care_about.IMP
    Don't care about meals and clothes
    tan di.di     gingtan hyet  logh
    GEN 2sMGH.DUP tree    grass like
    For you, trees and grass are the same
    utaima.zi p   gesen p   manushe 
    hat.AUG   and book  and medicine
    Crowns, books and medicine

    There exists a whole elaborate terminology as regards head-gear (regal and otherwise), but that's a part I haven't investigated yet, so I will try to get away with 'big hat', here. Manushe is medicine, literally 'sweet herb', because medicinal draughts are traditionally heavily sugared to make them more palatable.

    d      desh yiman  qoloriar.ju.ini dilogh
    this   all  always follow.CRT.HAB  each_other
    These certainly always follow upon each other
    and  yechan yiman  dayun.ju.ni dayun
    and  dust   always become.CRT.HAB
    And will always become dust.


    muanir tan  woya'perin  tau.arat.hau sü
    stroke GEN  heaven.fire NEG.fear.IMP again
    Don't fear the caress of lightning again.

    Strange, these caresses, but it's what I got when looking around for 'stroke'. A bit of poetic license is allowed? There are a lot of stories in Andal about the God of Lightning, Yignis having a good time with the Goddes of Rain, Sheshal.

    ma temdem   terinadar arat
    or thunder  noise     fear
    or the noise of the thunder
    tau  arat.hau zunga    ma tan mekinda musama.dir 
    NEG  fear.IMP curse    or GEN scorn   scar.p
    Don't fear curses or the scars of scorn.

    Of course, even when you're dead and gone to one of the Nine hells, you're still quite susceptible to curses and your children won't allow your name to be sullied, so this is a bit of nonsense for Charyans.

    e.di       nezirir  p   musir   wonir.ju
    poss.2sMGH laughing and weeping finished.IMP
    Stop your laughing and weeping 
    sheshedan.dir p   qaivan.dir tuoy  qaivan.dir suwonir.ju.ni
    suitors.p     and lover.p    young lover.p    give_up.CRT.HAB
    Suitors, young lovers and lovers are certainly giving in.

    Charyan doesn't distinguish between lovers and loved ones, not even in the sense that the first are sexual and the second not - it's just not in the vocabulary. So, what we have here are suitors, young lovers and lovers... Also, since the next phrase didn't have any separate content, I've been forced to make one Denden sentence out of two Teonaht sentences.

    dox yechan yiman  dayun.ini
    all dust   always become.HAB
    All allways becomes dust.

    A Lament under the rain

    This was far too beautiful a poem to let pass... It could almost have been written in Charya, and the author of the poem could have counted on a lucrative sinecure at the Imperial Court, overseer of the Imperial Sugar Procuring, or something like that.

    Mirilir         tan raygin.gin      tayr 
    goddess_of_rice TAN wheat_field.DUP TEG
    Wiha cenar chari kal     tau.cenar tau.chari tau.kal,    tayir.nuno
    sun  dark  clear distant NEG.dark  NEG.clear NEG.distant sad.DUR
    Over the fields of Mirilir,
    The dark, clear, distant, not dark, unclear, not distant sun is always sad, 

    The tegimentive locative case particle tayr TEG indicates that the sun is all above, but not necessarily touching, the fields, covering them with his rays. The elaborate serial adjective (or stative verb?) construction is typical Southern Colloquial. The word for sun, wiha, is archaic, and therefore indicates that the sun is seen as a deity. Mirilir is the goddess of rice, so mirilir tan raygin is the poetic way of saying rice-fields. The plain version would be razgin or razlyer, raz being one of the 'false friends' Denden has so many of - it really means rice, and is a Barushlan loan. The durative aspect <-za> DUR indicates that the sun is always sad.

    Laush.laush laush.nuno, andain.ain zelash
    rain.DUP    rain.DUR     bird.DUP   wet-through
    lauyé helai widab  laush hye  wau
    dhara gray  silver water with ADESS
    It drizzles and rains continuously, the birds are soaked
    Near the gray fountains, silver with water.

    Impersonal expressions like 'it rains' are formed in Denden by just using the verb on itself. The duplication of the verb indicated the delimitative aspect, it rains a bit, it drizzles. Denden does not allow more than one aspect suffix in the aspectual suffixal slot of a verb, and therefore there's a second verb laush 'rain', with the durative aspect. 'A continual dropping in a very rainy day...' The lauyé is a central place in both the Charyan villages and the cities. It's function is comparable to the Nepali dhara, it is the central place or square, where there's a fountain or a well. It is the seat of many local deities, and therefore holy. The reference of lauyé extends beyond the well or fountain itself, to include the square, and this line means that the rain has overflowed the well, which is gray from reflecting the sky, covering the square with water, reflecting the silver clouds. Laush means both 'rain' and 'water'.

    Laush per  tau.wonir ilor     ilor
    rain  cold NEG.stop  continue continue
    Raht  tau.wana.ju        Mirilir aday.yaday              tan.
    earth NEG.give_birth.CRT Mirilir male_child.female_child TAN
    If the unstopping cold rain continues and continues
    the earth won't give birth to Mirilir's children.

    The reduplication of ilor 'continue' is not a case of delimitative aspect, since the whole verb is reduplicated, not only the last syllable. The meaning is therefore more like 'continues and continues'. There is a particle daha 'if', but it's use is not necessary in this context, and would have unbalanced the line. The children of Mirilir are of course the rice-plants. I don't know whether the poet knows much about agriculture, but that doesn't matter - no Charyan poet is knowledgeable in that area.

    The choice of words, the word-order (especially of the genitive constructions with tan) makes it clear that the poet lived in the south of Charya, probably even in Broi. In that area there's rain season and a dry season, and the rainy season is very, very wet.

    Xipu! Manxuri penerar

    The text has first been written in Northern Colloquial Charyan, and is not a translation from a Dutch original. No English translation exists and although my intention is to offer this text for translation into conlangs, a good English translation is welcome, too.

    About the language:

    Northern colloquial Charyan or _Den'naha_ is the language spoken by the ethnic Charyan people in the north of Charya, in Veroi and the region north of that city. There's a map on my website. It is related to Southern colloquial Charyan and Denden. Because of the pre-eminence of Dendan and Classical Charyan as literary language, Den'naha is almost exclusively a spoken language.

    About the text and melody:

    It is a traditional folksong from the north of Charya. It purports to be sung by the ghost of a young girl who has died because she wasn't married of early enough.

    These songs are generally sung by a demdaranzha, a village singer, who has often been trained from the age of six or seven by another singer, from the same village. Singing is most often a sideline for them, despite the enormous effort expended in learning; demdaranzhazha almost always work as herdsmen or as farm labourers. They seldom have a farm of their own, however small. Both men and women can become demdaranzha. There is no different repertoire for male and female demdaranzhazha.

    Despite their extensive training most singers know only one melody which is used for all songs; every village claims to have its own melody, but research has determined that are not more than two dozen melodies in the area, at most. Most songs are sung in a tremolo voice. A possible melody is in midi format.

    In a broad transcription:

    ^ up and down
    / up one
    \ down one
    | up two
    ! start higher than the default tone (upper voice register)
    - start lower than the default tone
    V down a lot (as low as you can)
    ~ trill
    A horizontal line below the text marks a sustained syllable.
     ^ /   \  / \    \ /
    Xipu! Manxuri penerar
       _                _
     | \      / \       / \  \   ~
    Sero t'erneno beryakari yashnar
               / \      /  \   \ ~ v
    Yan t'eheranmamen t'imti esero u?
    !  \    / \      / \   \  |  \
    Galla esero ka chenam ye bangu
      / \  / \      / \     /   \  ~   
    "Sero laya", Yudirza yetashmérzo
             _                     _
     -             /   \    / \
    P'a ajir avaneranmamen sero
    -  \      /\         /  v
    Tima lyn sero lodha manve.

    Some hints as to pronunciation: ' indicates aspiration, x has its IPA valu= e, y is IPA j, except in lyn, where it is i (for no good reason), ng is ng + g, = sh is a palatal fricative, r is an uvular thrill).

    Xipu! Manxu.ri penerar
    EXCL  plum.p   fall.PRS
    Sero  t'e.r.neno   berya.kari yashna.r
    1sHGH have.PRS.DUR 10.3       spring.p
    Yan t'eheran.ma.men  t'imti e.sero    u!
    who ask_for.FUT1.AFF heart  POS.1sHGH EXCL
    Galla e.sero    ka  chenam ye  bangu
    hair  POS.1sHGH NOM black  and thick
    "Sero  laya", Yudirza yetashme.r.zo
     1sHGH pretty sister  says.PRS.FLT
    P'a  ajir    avaneran.ma.men sero
    ADH  someone court.FUT1.AFF  1sHGH
    Tima    lyn       sero  lodha manve.
    because beautiful 1sHGH like  cherry-blossom
    Xipu! Manxu.ri penera.r
    EXCL  plum.p   fall.PRS
    Sero  t'e.r.neno   berya.deryo relshna.r
    1sHGH have.PRS.DUR 10.4        summer.p
    Tau ajim      t'eheran.ze.men t'imti e.sero    u!
    NEG young.man ask_for.EXP.AFF   heart  POS.1sHGH EXCL
    Yudirci        e.sero    t'e.t'e  berya.kari azhemu
    younger_sister POS.1sHGH have.DUP 10.3       year
    Ye  sera  k'ari     chuam.lei  laya     ajum
    and 3sHGH yesterday marry.PRT1 handsome man
    P'a ajir    avaneran.ma.men sero
    ADH someone court.FUT1.AFF  1sHGH
    At'a   sero  ghadza lodha perve=20
    before 1sHGH die    like  snowdrop
    Xipu! Manxu.ri penera.r
    EXCL  plum.p   fall.PRS
    Sero  t'e.r.neno   berya.loryo raxna.r
    1sHGH have.PRS.DUR 10.5        autumn.p
    Tautau  ajim t'eheran.ze.r t'imti e.sero    u!
    NEG.DUP man  court.PRF.PRS heart  POS.1sHGH EXCL
    Naha   tewir.lei    sero  oke    netu
    mother lock_up.PRT1 1sHGH behind wall
    T'an shemai maizing      weru e.yudirci
    GEN  sew    wedding_gown 2    poss.younger_sister
    P'a ajir    avaneran.ma.men sero
    ADH someone court.FUT1.AFF  1sHGH
    At'a   sero  ghadza lodha süve
    before 1sHGH die    like  poppy
    Xipu! Manxu.ri penera.r
    EXCL  plum.p   fall.PRS
    Sero  t'e.r.neno   berhasri perhnar
    1sHGH have.PRS.DUR 16       winter.p
    Ye  tauna ajim t'eheran.ma t'imti esero     u!
    and never man  court.FUT1  heart  POS.1sHGH EXCL
    Tima    k'ari     yetan t'an sero  ghadza
    because yesterday night GEN  1sHGH die
    T'an gedel  cravain t'imti esero     reka
    GEN  lonely sorrow  heart  POS.1sHGH LOC
    P'a tajir  koloranma    sero
    ADH no-one imitate.FUT1 1sHGH
    Tima    sero  ghadza lodha choive
    because 1sHGH die    like  cornflower
    Ladna.r! P'a t'an wenta e.sero    gihatu
    people.p ADH GEN  story POS.1sHGH listen
    P'a chuam at'a   tau.chuam.jinu
    ADH marry before NEG.marry.POT
    Tima    sero  laya      lodha manve
    Because 1sHGH beautiful like  cherry-blossom
    Sero  lesha lodha perve
    1sHGH fresh like  snowdrop
    Sero  xixi   lodha süve
    1sHGH tender like  poppy
    Tarna sero  ghadza lodha choive!
    but   1sHGH die    like  cornflower


    The basis of this exercise is the Lamay Neranmen from the Brahir laqa canun tan ryabay. I present three versions: an interlinearized Denden version, the Denden translation from the Teonaht translation, and a Dutch translation of the Teonaht translation.


    The amatory attitudinal qualifier <-men> is necessary because of the tender relations between singer and the person sung-to.


    E.do    qoi.qoi       sümzi neran.an.men
    poss.1s finger.finger tipsy stroll.DELIM.AMA

    There exists a separate set of pronouns for use between lovers. Since that set is not used here, the relationship between the the 'I' of the song and 'you', must take place in a brothel - of course, that doesn't mean that the patron doesn't love the courtesan.

    Süsü-ü.men      e.di    hod'atahl par
    shake.DELIM.AMA poss.2s head'fore over
    Matan     e.di    heril héya.ya.men
    alognside poss.2s braid glide.DELIM.AMA
    Wüwish e.di    yé.yi'zu,      tirme'ar 
    dance  poss.2s dimple.DIM'LOC neck'LOC


    Sung.men e.di    teal     ar, damba.zi
    rest.AMA poss.2s shoulder LOC weight.AUG
    Yuanei   tiran e.di    yanang.dir tan
    pleasure grasp poss.1s breast.pl  TAN
    E.do    nahak hya    tan sunane
    poss.1s penis smooth TAN saunter

    nahak is common word, but not coarse - neither is it refined, Charyans would use paraphrases and metaphors to achieve a refined effect. The same holds for yenu, below.

    Nuy.nuy   nanlan bin.y     ar  anyalan 
    quick.DUP run    belly.DIM LOC navel


    Mo   dulane, qoi.qoi       dena    altah
    then waver   finger.finger stammer long_for
    Raygin     penne tan naina  tupa
    wheatfield dive  TAN nestle suddenly

    Wheatfields, grain, cornstalks, are all very common similes. Another poem that makes use of related imagery is presented by the poem raygin tan Choibron.


    Xoxo  bernus musa   yaraush, bajan.hau
    shake hill   stream lavish   come.IMP
    E.di    yenu nanah       drai'xux,  bajan.hau
    poss.2s cunt turn_around girl'lusty come.IMP

    Noteworthy in the last two lines is a possible variance in interpretation In Denden, and certainly in Denden poetry, it is possible that suffixes like the imperative <-hau> IMP apply to all verbs in the phrase. It is equally possible to interpret the imperative as only applying to the verb it is actually affixed to. Both interpretations are valid.

    Denden version of the Teonaht translation by Issytra:

    Qoi.qoi,   sem  qoi.qoi
    finger.DUP just finger.DUP
    Fingers, only fingers
    Neran.men  e.do       qoi.qoi    sümzi
    wander.AMA poss.1sMGH finger.DUP tipsy
    In the forested mountain-tops
    tan yerre tan qaivan  e.do
    TAN land  TAN beloved poss.1sMGH
    Of the countryside of my beloved
    Nemre.men    ryabay, qoi.qoi    e.do
    separate.AMA grasses finger.DUP poss.1sMGH
    Separate the grass, my fingers
      (This is a difficult point. As soon as stalks, blades
      of grass or anything like that is mentioned, a Charyan
      indeed does think of hair, but not on the head.)
    ryabay  tan yerre tan qaivan  e.do
    grasses TAN land  TAN beloved poss.1sMGH
    The grass of the countryside of my beloved.
    Qoi.qoi    e.do       süsü.men, süsü.men
    finger.DUP poss.1sMGH waver.AMA waver.AMA
    My fingers, tremble, waver
    sümzi, xux-xux
    tipsy  lusty.DUP
    Tipsily, lustily
    matan     heril héya.ya.men
    alongside braid glide.DUP.AMA
    alongside the braid they glide
    e.di       garal tan ryabay       logh
    poss.2sMGH hair  TAN grain-stalks alike
    Your hair is like wheat on the field
    Tan chrenla e.di       nezirir wüwish
    TAN valley  poss.2sMGH smile   dance
    Dancing in the valley of your smile
      (Sally, are T. deluan and liluan cognate? Nice coincidence with
      Dd. _luan_ 'love, to love', too!)
    Tan teal     e.di       harul
    TAN shoulder poss.2sMGH gold
    Towards your golden shoulder
      (White as a colour is not much prized - the poor girls from
      the north of the continent have no chance of becoming famous
      beauties in the capital city of Broi.)
    esse.men;    e.di       damba.zi rezet.yi  tiran.men
    descend.AMA; poss.2sMGH weighty  bread.DIM take.AMA
    Descend; take your weighty buns
      (Hills as an image is strictly used for the mons veneris, but buns can
      be used as an image for breasts, although the typical, very small
      Charyan breads have a bifurcated form which makes them a popular simile
      for the labia.)
    Xux.xux  tan di    tan cah.cah    do
    lust.DUP TAN 2sMGH TAN harden.DUP 1sMGH
    The lust for you hardens me
    tarna Qoi.qoi,   sem  qoi.qoi
    but   finder.DUP just finder.DUP
    But just [my] fingers, just [my] fingers
    dulane.men yülish masay   tan e.di       bin.y
    waver.AMA  above  thimble TAN poss.2sMGH belly.DIM
    Waver above the thimble of your belly
    dena.men  tan bay.garir   logh
    waver.AMA TAN stick.magic like
    Wavering like a magic wand
    harul tebi.tebi
    gold  smell.DUP
    that smells gold
    Penne.men! Karinzu.men!
    dive.AMA   enter.AMA
    Dive! Enter!
    Xoxo  bernus musa   yaraush
    shake hill   stream lavish   
    Let the hill shake and stream lavishly, 
    bajan.hau, nanah       drai'xux,  bajan.hau
    come.IMP   turn_around girl'lusty come.IMP
    Come! Wriggle around, my lusty girl, come!


    De vingers, alleen nog maar de vingers
    Wandel!, mijn dronken vingers
    Door de beboste bergtop
    Van het landschap van mijn liefje
    Scheid de halmen, o mijn vingers
    Van het veld van mijn liefje

    O mijn vingers, hoe dansen ze
    Dronken, opgewonden
    Langs de vlecht naar beneden
    Haar lokken korenschoven

    In de vallei van je glimlach dansen ze
    Naar de richel van haar witte schouder
    Dalen af, grijpen vrolijk de stevigte
    Van haar gladde heuvels zonder dralen

    Mijn liefde voor jou verstijft me, maar
    nu de vingers, alleen de vingers
    aarzelen boven het kelkje van je buik
    Trillend als een wichelroede

    Die opeens het verborgen water vindt
    Duik nu! Nestel je erin!
    Laat die heuvel schudden, met haar overvloedige stromen
    Kom, verdiep het leger
    O m'n geile meisje, kom!