Home - A Grammar of the Denden Language - Abbreviations - References


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Parts of speech

Some lexemes are more achetypically verbal in meaning than others, but the formal difference between nouns and verbs is difficult to make in Denden. An archetypically nominal lexeme can be inflected using the verbal affixes, and thus obtain a verbal meaning. Archetypically nominal lexemes that are used in the position of the verb in the phrase also acquire a verbal meaning. However, if the nominalizing copula ga NOM can also be used to form nominal sentences. The nominalizing copula ga NOM cannot be inflected for attitude, tense or aspect, although ga NOM has been attested to be negated. Nouns can also be negated.

The labels 'verb' and 'noun' thus have only a formal meaning in the sense that 'verbs' can be inflected for attitude, tense and aspect, while 'nouns' cannot. There is no formal difference between an uninflected verb and an adjective. Adverbial particles cannot be inflected, and neither can adnominal particles be inflected.

Word Order

Word order in Denden is often a direct reflection of the word order of the native tongue of the speaker or author. There is a clear division here: texts from the south (the region around the Nine Cities consistently show an SOV pattern, while sources from other regions show an SVO pattern. Older Charyan languagen, like Classical Charyan and Archaic Charyan, also show an SVO pattern.

The Simple Sentence

Affirmative Sentences


Bipolar questions

Complex Sentences

Topic constructions

Nominalisation and the particle ga

Information structuring particles


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