Home - A Grammar of the Denden Language - Abbreviations - References
Previous: Phonology - Up: Nominal Morphology - Next: Number
There is no active grammatical category of gender, except in the case of personal pronouns, where there is a two-way distinction between animate-inanimate and within the animate category between masculine and feminine - a distinction which is strictly semantically based.
Certain suffixes build gender-specific lexemes, in a productive manner, but the semantic gender of a word does not influence any grammatical structure. The suffix that indicates masculine gender is <-dan> (M) and the suffix that indicates feminine gender is <-dir> (F). The form of the suffix can be reduced to <-an> (M) and <-ir> (F).
The suffixes are reduced form of the words adan 'man' and yadir 'woman', but this can not be taken as case of compounding, since in forming compounds it never is the last part that is reduced in form.
|hahanir||female vagrant (<hahan 'to wander')|
|gerdan||butcher (M) (< gerran 'meat')|
However: pinir 'sot, fool', can be used both in reference to males and females; Classical Charyan shows the more regular form piniran 'male fool'.
The suffix <-(d)an> AGP can also be used to form the nomen agentis from verbs and is thus a nominalising suffix:
|klondan||farmer (<klon 'to build, to farm, to let grow')|
The suffix <-(d)ir> (verb) can also be used to form verbs from nouns and is thus a verb-forming suffix:
|avan(r)ir||to love (< avan 'sweet, lovable, a love')|
The suffix <-(d)ir> can be used in at least two productive inflectional processes and one derivation process, the productivity of which might be questioned:
Up: Nominal Morphology - Previous: Phonology - Next: Number